Posted by Jaime Jones and Catherine Kim
In a June 23, 2014 opinion, the Fourth Circuit affirmed the dismissal of qui tam claims against suppliers of the National Center for Employment of the Disabled (“NCED”) and the National Industries for the Severely Handicapped (“NISH”) under the FCA’s public disclosure bar, as well as the relator’s failure to satisfy the relevant pleading requirements.
The relator initially filed this qui tam suit on June 20, 2006, alleging that NCED engaged in various schemes to defraud the government, primarily by receiving payments under the Javits-Wagner-O’Day Act (“JWOD”) program despite failing to comply with JWOD regulations. Prior to the filing, however, various newspapers published articles discussing NCED’s lack of compliance with JWOD program requirements. A criminal investigation followed and in 2010, a jury convicted NCED’s former CEO of making false statements and conspiracy to defraud the government.
In light of such events, NISH and the supplier defendants filed motions to dismiss, asserting that the district court lacked subject matter jurisdiction pursuant to the public disclosure bar and that the relator’s first amended complaint suffered from various pleading defects. The district court granted the defendants’ motions, and the relator appealed.
In reviewing the district court’s decision, the Fourth Circuit adopted an interpretation of the FCA’s public disclosure provision that “stands in contrast to the broader tests applied by our sister circuits[.]” Specifically, while other circuits generally assess whether the allegations are “supported by” or “substantially similar” to fraud that has already been publicly disclosed, the Fourth Circuit asked whether the relator’s allegations were “actually derived from the public disclosure itself.”
With respect to the claims against NISH and three supplier defendants, the court held that the district court lacked subject matter jurisdiction over such claims because the relator had apparently relied on and even cited to information appearing in public disclosures and had not demonstrated “direct and independent knowledge” of the alleged fraud. Although the court concluded that the relator was an original source with respect to the claims against Weyerhaeuser Co., it nonetheless dismissed such claims as well due to various pleading defects.
The Fourth Circuit’s narrower reading of the public disclosure provision could present challenges to FCA defendants, depending on how lower courts ultimately apply the “derived from” standard adopted in this case. While it is unclear which interpretation of the public disclosure bar will ultimately prevail among the circuit courts, we will continue to monitor this issue and provide updates on any new developments.