In a recent opinion, the First Circuit significantly constrained the scope of the fraud-on-the-FDA theory of liability, which posits that had the FDA known of the defendant’s alleged violation of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”), it would not have approved the defendant’s product, such that no claims for that product would have been covered by federal healthcare programs. See United States ex rel. D’Agostino v. ev3, Inc., No. 16-1126 (1st Cir. Dec. 23, 2016). The court imposed a rigorous causation standard on fraud-on-the-FDA claims, requiring relators to show that FDA took “official action” after discovering that a manufacturer had submitted fraudulent information to the agency. This standard mirrors the new materiality standard set forth by the Supreme Court in Escobar, in that both require relators to ground their allegations in how the government reacted to learning of the alleged fraud.
03 January 2017